Visionary Aesthetics and Architecture Variations


Celestino Soddu

Professor of Architectural Design, Registered Architect

Director of Generative Design Lab

Department of Architecture and Planning

Politecnico di Milano University, Italy -




1.0 Abstract 


This paper describes the use of Generative Approach to construct the transformation processes of artificial environment. In particular urban and architectural environments with long history are considered.    

The aim was to design generative codes able to generate detailed architectural projects of new buildings and new imprintings inside existing historical environments. These new architectures had to fit, or better to increase the specific town evolution.   

These design experiments follow my first generative projects, dated from 1988, concerning Italian Medieval Towns and subsequent evolutions. These were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Hong Kong, Macau, Shanghai, Nagoya, TelAviv, Rome, Los Angeles, Chicago, NewYork and Washington DC.   

The challenge is to generate Visionary Variations of complex environments by using Morphogenesis codes. As in nature to reach, by using generative codes,  the complex contemporary quality of detailed architectural projects.


2.0 History and Nature 


Our goal is to associate the natural environments to the artificial environments that had been marked by the time and cultural processes. Historical cities that have had a cultural stratification through the centuries seems to be more natural. They seems to fit our more deep needs in living environmental systems as a mirror of our life. This wonderful quality belongs to ancient cities like Rome and in modern cities like NY City and Chicago that stratified, in the last centuries, different cultures. This is a process that works as an identifiable and recognizable concept of ideal City.   

This analogy with nature is due to a lot of factors. Each of these factors is a fundamental part of the natural image of these complex artificial systems. In my work each one is described and designed with a generative morphogenesis code, with algorithms that, as an artificial DNA, work to define the evolution of town environments.


2.1 Uniqueness. Generation versus Cloning


First factor. Aesthetics of Transformation versus Aesthetics of Repetition. 

The association of the adjective "artificial" with the concept of repetition of objects all equal can help us to consider a historical city as a natural world. No architecture, in cities born and evolved before the last century, is equal to another. May be that we can discover similarity, but not repetition.    

Our good harmony feeling inside natural environments is also due to the appreciation of uniqueness and un-repeatebility of natural realities. No tree is equal to another, also if it is similar. Each tree is unpredictable, also if it is not a surprise.  It is recognizable. 

In the artificial worlds we can work to build this quality by using a morphogenesis approach. We can design "natural" species instead of objects. As happens in nature, these species generate endless sequences of individual realities.    

Generative Design can fit these human needs. As Leonardo codes, we can do that by designing the Dna of possible architectural and urban scenarios.    

After two centuries of cloned objects and versus the concept of architecture and design of artificial objects as equal repetition of the same result, considered "optimal", with Generative Approach we can find again the ability to design and to produce artificial worlds emulating the nature oneness and un-repeatability.   

So, avoiding the random-form approach, we can design extended artificial DNA, and we can control these artificial species from the whole to the details of each possible generated individuals. Generative design is the construction of an idea/code as similarity of individuals that belong to a same species. It is not only the generation of random results waiting for the emergence of unexpected form which could satisfy the expectations of people with not-well defined aim.   

The species is a design product. New individual don't emerge from random. Each scenario is one of the possible endless representations of the same generative processes, of the same concept/idea. Each result is different because of unpredictable factors of the context in which each individual lives, but each result belongs the applied morphogenesis codes.


2.2 Complexity, Artificial Life and Cellular Automata 


Second factor. Natural organic structure of historical cities comes from progressive contaminations of different concepts in a running time line. The complexity of a long-lived-town's system cannot be emulated without running again the same type of progressive path. In this sense the generative methodology has to foresee a series of transformation logics, which we could assume as concepts representation. Each generative project has to activate and to run artificial lives that manage, dynamically, the progressive mutual contaminations of these concepts.   


"In order to realize complexity and clarity, one needs to define operational logics that are strongly structured and that explicitly mirror a simple subjective approach. First of all, complexity cannot be reached in a single step. If we try to draw a city we will always make a simplified representation of it, or, at most, one that is strongly allusive with respect to a particular and limited reading key. The urban images of Piranesi, the series of engravings on the "Carceri" are, perhaps, the highest visionary representations of the urban and architectural complexity in a single sketch. But even Piranesi, in order to reach complexity, stratified one sketch onto the other, using an already carved plate and stratifying new visions, often contaminating one perspective logic with another, creating ambiguity and new possible overlapping reading keys that follow different temporal and emotional moments contaminating one another but that are not contradictory.      

Complexity is always the result of progressive paths of contamination and stratification. It is generated from the dynamics of a process and often from its non-linearity. That's not all. Complexity also emerges from the ability of an idea/hypothesis to confront unforeseen events within a process of temporal transformation. If the idea, considered as visionary of the future, comes across obstacles, overcoming these obstacles and constraints creates knots of complexity in the system. At the same time, this increases the recognizability of the idea, that is, the complex identity of every single event."  (Generative Design Visionary Variations. Morphogenetic processes for complex future identities,  Celestino Soddu, Communication and Cognition Journal, 2003)   

Complexity, as stratification of different and subsequent approaches, needs to have a process time. Also a subjective approach defined today is different from tomorrow's new one, the same if it belongs to the same human viewpoint.    

Complexity is created by the simultaneous existence of different concepts and, in the same moment, of contradictory ones inside the same visionary approach.   

If our aim is to design morphogenesis codes able to construct a contempoirary complexity, we need to stratify, inside generative project, a lot of different subjective concepts mirroring our personal history of designers, our different moods and the sequence of hypothesis belonging to our cultural viewpoint.   

Doing that, we need to interpret each design occasion as a particular contamination way of our stratified morphogenetic codes. So we need to redefine a paradigm that will control the evolutionary path.   

Following the concept that complexity rises only from a temporal path, we can manage a second possibility using evolutionary systems. This second possibility can be used only together with the first one because it can only consolidate the increasing complexity of a topological relationship.   

In order to design this system of rules, we could also use Cellular Automata logical approaches. But such evolutionary structures don't succeed in satisfying the complexity as figuration proper of architectural events. In my generative architectural projects I used three-dimensional cellular automata for increasing the complexity of a topological system but not directly for shaping possible architectural events. Each of these architectural events follows genetic structures built considering the specificity of feasible buildings. This peculiarity is defined through rules of transformation.  Cellular Automata is really a generative phenomenon but only as a schematic support of possible configuration. 

Cellular Automata define a progressive structure of different codes that are applicable to each event, at the different scales, considering the structure of relationships with the surrounding events.  It is very important for the possible starting up of generative processes. 

Each architectural event is identified and it is generated by considering what happens in the 26 surrounding positions. These relationships operate enhancing the rules of transformation already working in each single event and in its 26 interfaces shared with other events. This process occurs from the whole architecture until its details. My process uses logics similar to fractal systems. The difference with fractal systems is that the homothetic approach is applied not to forms but to transformations.

Sequence of increasing complexity in a 3d cellular automata experimental program by C.Soddu   


2.3 Figuration and Idea 


3dr factor. Like in nature, the constrains belonging to the increasing functional and technological factors that occur during the design life will increase the quality and natural character of artificial environment.   

The strong relationship between figuration, feasibility and architectural concept can be managed in way that the feasibility don't reduce the idea but can be the key to gain complexity by opening a lot of parallel possibilities to develop the architectural concept until the implementation of final design results.   

I defined, inside my generative projects, a structure of different, parallel and possible devices of transformation that represent a lot of different constructive approaches to the architectural shape feasibility. The choice among these possible evolutionary paths is done not only at a low level but with the purpose to enhance the idea/code during each increasing complexity process. The evolutionary process is managed by fitting the progressive results with different construction approaches and their progressive contamination in an open system. In this way, all the practical needs, that could seem to be bonds, are really used to enhance the architectural idea. As normally happens in nature, difficulties don't reduce the input but are the occasion for increasing the complexity implementation.   

Like olive tree. More it is beaten from the wind and from the bad weather, more it has been  marked by time history, more the quality of the result is amazing and fascinating. Time and constrains has enhanced its identity of individual, its being an exceptional and unique expression of the species code.











Olive tree aged of two thousand years in the Getzemani Garden, Jerusalem


In our town environment (and in architectural design processes too) the same process happens. More the town was passed through strong and different cultures, and, in sequence, different needs was applied to transform this reality, more its artificial environment has a high quality.   

In generative processes happens the same. More the requests of the client are strong, contradictory and impossible, more the quality of the results can be high. The difficulties push the evolution and each step is an occasion to use an architectural code, using its ability to transform the request in increasing complexity and the first draft in a progressive good project.


Loa Angeles downtown, Visionary Variation. C.Soddu generative project 2003




3.0 Generative Codes and Visionary Variations. 


Our aim is to construct Morphogenesis codes able to generate endless Visionary Variations. We can use, simultaneously, a set of different devices of transformation, made with the aim to represent the manifold faces of our architectural hypothesis.   

As in nature, no one of this device of transformation is necessary or is exhaustive of our idea. We can use all them together. But we can also insert later other devices in order to upgrade our architectural idea during the time of our designing experience. The generated results will represent our subjective experience, our cultural references.  Subjective codes in collective modality. 


Chicago, one century ago. Visionary Generative scenario fitting City Identity.

C.Soddu generative project 2003.


My challenge was to design a generative code able to represent fascinating environments as historical cities. By representing the process and not the results, by constructing an artificial DNA.  

I considered these subsequent issues and I used them to design an open system of generative codes:   

1.         In the historic cities everything seems always been so, that everything could not be anything else than so, but, at the same moment, everything is surprisingly unpredictable and complex, full of contradictions and of unexpected contaminations.  

2.         Everything is organically structured but every detail, every event is unique and unrepeatable.  The codes of transformation, that I designed, manage opposite characters: uniqueness and recognizability, complexity and identity, unpredictability and organic system, order and chaos. 

3.         It is possible to find codes of identity and associations among characters and specificities of the events that compose these complex systems. But every code is interpretative code, is an hypothesis  that represents the subjectivity of whom builds it.  

4.         The codes of reading are endless and each of these is like the codes that we use to recognize the objects surrounding us, the same codes that we learned to build when we was children and we needed to distinguish a chair from a table, an automobile from a truck, a picture of Van Gogh from one of Picasso, the teachers of mathematics from those of gymnastics.   Generative codes have to manage recognizability and clarity of possible scenarios.

5.         The amazing thing is that, even if these codes are built so strongly by following our subjectivity, they perfectly work and are able to give us the ability to recognize unpredictable events. These rules of identification, also if they are different from the rules used by other people, can fit the same results. This happens even if these subjective rules are founded on different lived events and on different logical associations.  So, Identity codes can be written referring to our subjectivity. They will work well if these codes will be a lot inside an open system.

6.         The codes of transformation that build the artificial DNA have to simultaneously fit our subjective way to read the surrounding environment and its transforming processes and, in the same moment, the inter-subjective feeling of how (in our interpretation) the inhabitants look at the past/future of the city environment.  

7.         The idea of city that springs from these subjective and inter-subjective approaches operates toward the realization of the city itself increasing its own fascinating aspects, its own characters, its own identity. This Idea represents an evolution and progressive stratification of complexity and it traces, unequivocally, the existence of a temporal run in action. The existence of the past, that is represented by the visible and by interpretable transformations gives the possibility of looking to a future.  The need to interpret the existing town environment puts us into the game. We feel us inside the time, we feel alive, we feel well. A city without history is unliveable, because it is without time and therefore without future. At least until first transformations will be implemented, by opening the games to the creativeness and to the future. 


The generative codes must be rules of transformation. Nothing has to be defined as form: this is a static approach. Everything has to be identified and to be designed as process of transformation, by following our need to feel alive. The more interesting and "natural" architectures were born by a transformation, not by a single act. The Pantheon too, one of the more perfect architectures, was born transforming a previous existing temple.


Shanghai. Visionary variation of city evolution. C.Soddu generative project 2003


Nagoya. Visionary variation of the district of the harbor. C.Soddu generative project  2003


4.0 Visionary Variations  


My last generative works have been characterized by the attempt to design the complexity of the urban-architectural environments of the modern tradition. While my first generative projects in the 80' have been characterized by the reconstruction of generative codes of the Italian urban tradition, from the Roman Empire to the medieval cities, from Renaissance to the Baroque, my last works focused the comparison with the urban environments of the modern tradition, as Chicago of the beginning of last century. This approach was enthusiastically performed and I found a good field to verify the possibility of using the generative approach directly in one of the most important design activity: the design of the quality of the urban environment, of the urban-architectural character and of its identity. Above all because in city as Chicago, Hong Kong and New York we can easily read the passage to the modern not only as innovation but also as construction of a cultural ideal shared among its inhabitants: the ideal city.   

The challenge was to identify and build, with generative codes, visionary variations of ideal cities that are readable and interpretable in these real contexts and in their active and evolutionary processes.


Nagoya downtown, Japan. Visionary Scenarios of increasing complexity 2003


4.1 The Visionary approach 


To implement a visionary approach we have:   

1. To operate by generating variations and not permutations of pre-designed components (also if these components are parametric). My approach uses a set of parallel codes of transformation that represent a subjective vision, an interpretation of the reality as first step to implement possible worlds. Following that, my generative work don’t use databases. It is an open system able to generate endless results.

2. To reread the historical architectures but not to re-design their forms.  The concept was to re-construct the complexity as harmony able to put, in only a scenario, the plurality of events that represents the natural multiplicity of the possible.   



Washington DC, Inter American Development Bank Visionary variations. C.Soddu generative project 2003


3. To build an artificial DNA that can be, at the same moment, innovative, contemporary, and the mirror of the architectural tradition of Renaissance. Where the generated scenarios, also if they mirror the tradition, they consolidate themselves in complex forms constrained by rules, they overcame the limit of these rules by using them. These scenarios have to deny the constrictive aspect of these rules to find again, in the constrain, the occasion to explain the concept and run the process of discovery. We are working, as in the Renaissance, in the field of art and science.   

4. To maintain, rather to amplify the recognizability of each of these cities, also operating through architectures whose image is strongly linked to contemporary concepts of architecture.   


5.0 Conclusion. Generative Art: technology or philosophy? 


The results of this challenge are the visionary variations of cities like Chicago, Nagoya, Shanghai, Washington, Los Angeles, Tel Aviv, and Rome.  

These visionary approaches trace not the solution but the process toward a possible, a look toward possible variations of the environment that we are living. The aim is to design an idea of artificial objects that mirror nature, of architecture as plot of endless variations, of simultaneous uniqueness, of complexity that suddenly appears as existing from a long time, as natural character that we was looking for a long time, as mirror of our life.


Washington DC, Dupont street. Visionary variation of town evolution. C.Soddu generative project (IDB exhibition 2003)


TelAviv. Visionary variation of seafront. C.Soddu generative project of a new hotel, 2003


The generative approach overcomes the technology, it goes beyond the limits of the tools and it is the occasion of deep evaluations on the structure of the environmental systems surrounding us, occasion of discovery of creative spaces that we, for a long time, were looking for.  

The idea can be concretised in a project of ideal city without having the necessity to represent it as solution, but only as code of the possible, as process of transformation that we can run: this is the Generative Art. Opening unexplored roads to the creativeness redefining the concept of design GA is, more than a technology, a philosophy.   

Generative Art is not (only) a technology also if it uses information technologies. It is not only a tool that we can use to generate forms. It is a philosophy with a strong and humanistic imprinting: each generative project can be implemented only starting from a hypothesis, like all scientific discovery paths, from a subjective vision of possible worlds, of possible rules, of possible increasing complexity. 


Rome. Visionary variation of Ghetto-Trastevere new link. C.Soddu, E.Colabella, A.Sonnino Generative project 2003





C.Soddu, "L'artificiale progettato ", (the designed artificial world) Casa del Libro Publisher, 1979.
C.Soddu, "La patina del tempo" (the time patina) in "Recuperare" magazine n.9 1984.
C.Soddu, P.A.Rossi, "Il calice di Paolo Uccello uno e senza limite", (the goblet of Paolo Uccello, one and without limit) with a referee of C.L.Ragghianti, in "Critica d'arte" magazine n.8 1986.
C.Soddu, "L'immagine non euclidea" (the not euclidean image), Gangemi publisher, 1987.  
C.Soddu, "Simulazioni per immagini tridimensionali computerizzate della dinamica di evoluzione formale dell'ambiente urbano", (3D simulation of dynamic evolution of urban shape), proceedings of the conference "l'immagine nel rilievo, Sezione L'immagine Computerizzata", Roma 1989.

C.Soddu, "Rappresentazione e rilievo per immagini tridimensionali computerizzate della morfogenesi storica urbana" (computer 3D representation of the morphogenesis of urban evolution), in the proceedings of the conference "il Rilievo Tra Scienza e Storia", Perugia 1989, then published in the magazine XYZ 1991.
C.Soddu, "Identita' come specie: la morfogenesi dell'immagine urbana con sequenze di modelli 3D di citta' aleatorie", (Identity as species: the morphogenetic evolution of urban image using 3D models of random cities), in the proceedings of the conference "Identita', Differenza, Fraintendimento", Palermo 1989.
C.Soddu, "Nuovi metodi di rappresentazione della configurazione urbana: la specie", in the book "La Configurazione dell'Immagine Urbana" (Designin the urban image), Gangemi publisher 1991.
C.Soddu, "Citta' Aleatorie", (Unpredictable cities), Masson Publisher. 1989 .

C.Soddu, "Citta' Aleatorie: strumenti di rappresentazione della dinamiche dell'immagine urbana", (random cities,  representation tool of town shape dynamics), in the magazine "Territorio" n.3, 1989
C.Soddu, "Citta' Aleatorie", in "Computer and Art", Exhibition 1990, Lugano Swiss, , Fondazione dalle Molle Foundation for the quality of life, George Mason University.
C.Soddu, "Il progetto di specie. Strumenti propositivi e di controllo delle potenzialita' dell'acciaio nell'architettura e nel design", (the design of species. The creative tool to increase the possibility of using steel in architecture and industrial design), in the magazine "Acciao", April 1990.
C.Soddu, "Progetto di specie", (design of species) in the magazine "Sinopie" n.4 1991.
C.Soddu, "Simulation tools for the dynamic evolution of town shape", in "Global change and local problems", Oxford Polytechnic 1991.
C.Soddu, "La simulazione della dinamica evolutiva della forma, dagli scenari metropolitani al design morfogenetico", (The simulation of the shape evolutionary dynamics. From urban scenarios to the morphogenetic industrial design), in the proceedings of the conference "La citta' interattiva", Milano, June 1991
C.Soddu, "Simulation tools for the learning approach to dynamic evolution of town shape, architecture and industrial design", in "Proceedings. International Conference on computer aided learning and instruction in science and engineering", published by Press Polytecniques et Universitaries Romandes. Lausanne 1991.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Il progetto ambientale di morfogenesi", (the environmental design of morphogenesis), Progetto Leonardo Publisher 1992 
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Spatial and image dynamical models for controlling and planning the development of differences in an increasingly international and interdependent world", in the proceedings of the conference "Planning in a time of Change", Stockholm 1992
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "The project of morphogenesis to design the DNA or architecture", in the proceedings of  "CIB'92, World Building Congress", Montreal 1992.
C.Soddu, "Il progetto ambientale attraverso i codici morfogenetici del naturale artificiale", (the environmental design using morphogenesis codes of natural/artificial systems), in the book "Poiesis, l'informatica nel progetto euristico", Citta' Studi Publisher, Milano 1993.
C.Soddu, "Morphogenetishes Design Architekture " in "New Realities - Neue Wirklichkeiten II ArchitekturAnimationenInstallationen" 27 Jan/4 Apr 1993, Museum fur Gestaltung Zurich.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "The morphogenetic design as an artificial intelligence system to support the management of design procedures through the total quality of the built-environment", in the proceedings of "The management of Information Technology for Construction. First International Conference" Singapore, 17/20 August 1993.
C.Soddu, "The design of morphogenesis to design the genetic code of the artificial environment", in 33rd European Congress of Regional Science Association, Moscow, August 1993.
C.Soddu, "Human machine interaction in design processes. New search software to generate the simulation of the increasing complexity of an idea about architecture, environment and industrial design". In the proceeding of the congress "Computer Science, Communications and Society: A Technical and Cultural Challenge " Neuchatel, 22/24 September.
C.Soddu, "Progetto di morfogenesi per un'architettura dei componenti. I pannelli metallici di copertura e di parete", (The morphogenetic architectural design using steel components), in the proceedings of the congress AIPPEG at SAIE, 22 October 1993, Bologna, published in the magazine Rassegna AIPPEG n.1 1994.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Experimental CBL original software to teach project approach and designing procedures in architecture and industrial design", in the proceedings of the International Conference of Computer Based Learning in Science", Wien 18/21 September 1993.
C.Soddu, "Il progetto di morfogenesi / Design of morphogenesis", in the magazine Demetra, n.5 December 1993. (In Italian and English)
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "La progettazione morfogenetica dell'ambiente urbano", (Morphogenetic environmental design) in "Ridisegna la Citta'" catalogue of the exhibition Casaidea 1994, Roma 1994.
C.Soddu, "Intelligenza Artificiale e progetto di architettura. Dai vecchi CAD a nuovi strumenti che incrementano la creativita' progettuale come pensiero del possibile", (AI and architectural design. From old CAD to new tools that increase the creativity as thought of possible events), in the magazine Archimedia n.4, 1994
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Tre tesi di disegno industriale", (3 student's thesis work of Industrial Design), in the magazine Area, September 1994
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "The project of morphogenesis. A way to design the evolution code of the environment", AESOP congress, Istanbul 23-26 August 1994.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Artificial Intelligence in the teaching of architectural design", in the proceedings of the conference Hypermedia in Sheffield, Sheffield 1995
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Recreating the city's identity with a morphogenetic urban design", International Conference on Making the Cities Livable, Freiburg 1995.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Artificial Intelligence and Architectural design", CAAD Futures '95, Singapore 1995.
C.Soddu, "Lavoro e Internet", (Job and Internet), conference at the Rotary Club Milano Porta Design – Design in Contexts", The European Academy of Design, Stockholm 13-15.4.1997 Vercellina, 3.2.1997, publisher in Rotary magazine.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Argenic design", paper at the International Conference "Contextual Design – Design in Contexts", The European Academy of Design, Stockholm 13-15.4.1997
C.Soddu, "Argenia, il progetto genetico dell'auto naturale" in the proceedings of the congress "Mobilita' ed evoluzione dell'ambiente del XXI secolo, Motor Show Bologna 1997. Published in the book "Mobilita' del XXI secolo", Promotor publisher, Bologna 1997
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "A Natural Approach to Industrial Design: Argenic Design", New Simplicity?, International furniture design conference, Helsinki Aug 1997.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "Pantheon", CDRom Multimedia, Poligrafico dello Stato publisher 1996.
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, "I percorsi della mente" (mind paths), CDRom Multimedia, Alea Design 1996.
C.Soddu, "Internet", in the magazine AIPAI, 1997
C.Soddu, Gege' Telesforo, "100% pure live funk and generative art", TV movie, STREAM, Italian network.
C.Soddu, "Arte Generativa, nuovi prodotti per l'uomo", (generative art, new products for the human beings), 1998, Rotary magazine.  
C.Soddu, "Argenia, the natural approach to Architecture and Industrial Design" in the proceedings of Mecatronic workshop at the Universtity of Lancaster, 27/28 May 1998. (ISBN 1-86220-057-2).     
C.Soddu, "Argenia, una citta' naturale", (Argeněa, a natural city) at the conference Piazze Telematiche, The proceedings are published in the book "Piazze telematiche", Rome 1998
C.Soddu, "Recognizability of the Idea: The evolution process of Argeněa", in the proceedings of AISB99 Edinburgo 6-9 April 1999. 
C.Soddu, "Argeněa: codici dell'identita' artificiale", Digitalcity - International Biennale Cybercultura, Parma 25-27 March 1999. 
C.Soddu, "GENERATIVE ART", proceedings of GA'98, Editrice Dedalo Publisher, Rome 1999
C. Soddu, "Recognizability of designer imprinting in Generative artwork". Proceedings of Generative Art Conference GA'99, Milan December 1999.
C. Soddu, "New naturality: a Generative Approach to Art and Design" in Artificial Life 7 workshop proceedings, Carlo C. Maley and Etlis Boudreau Editors, Portland, Ontario, USA, 2000
C. Soddu, "Argenia, Art's Idea as Generative Code", in 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference proceedings, Annie S. Wu, University of Central Florida Editor, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2000
C. Soddu, "Basilica, an Architectural Generative Virtual Office based on Italian Renaissance Code's interpretation", in Mosaic 2000 proceedings, University of Washington Editor, Seattle, 2000
C. Soddu, "From Forming to Transforming", proceedings of Generative Art Conference, Milan, Ale Design Publisher, December 2000
C. Soddu, "Argenia, naturality in Industrial Design", in proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design, CAID&CD'2000, International Academic Publisher, World Publisher Corporation, December 2000
C.Soddu, “Recognizability of the idea: the evolutionary process of Argenia” in P.Bentley & D. Corne (edited by), "Creative Evolutionary Systems", Morgan Kaufmann Publisher, San Francisco US, 2001
Duncan Graham-Rowe, Design Genes, Blueprint Magazine, August 2001
C. Soddu, "Generative Natural Flux", proceedings of Generative Art Conference, Milan, AleaDesign Publisher, December 2001
C.Soddu, “Generative Art, Visionary Variations”, Catalog of the exhibition at Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong Museum, 2002
C.Soddu, “New Naturality: a Generative approach to Art and Design”, Leonardo Magazine 35, MIT press, July 2002
C.Soddu, E.Colabella, “Generative Art, Preludi natural mirrors”, proceedings of ISEA2002, Nagoya, Japan, published by Inter Society for the Electronic Arts, Japan.
C.Soddu, “”Clarity, complexity harmony and safety: Identity’s Generative codes build liveable cities”, Proceedings of Cities Asia Summit, Singapore 5-6 Nov. 2002, PSA Pub., Singapore
C.Soddu, “La Citta’ Ideale, generative codes design identity”, Proceedings of GA2002, GDL Pub., December 2002, Milano

C.Soddu, ““Generative Art, Visionary Variations of Washington DC”, catalogue of the exhibition DigItalyArt, IDB Cultural Center, Washington DC, 2003.

C.Soddu, Generative Design Visionary Variations. Morphogenetic processes for complex future identities,  in Communication and Cognition Journal, 2003 (incoming printing)